Vitamin C supplementation can help counter the wearing away of cartilage. Vitamin C is used throughout the body to manufacture a variety of tissues, including collagen. Collagen forms a network of protein fibers that lay down the structural foundation for many tissues, including cartilage, bone, tendons and muscles, all necessary to keep joints strong and operating smoothly. One study by the University of New York at Stony Brook found that vitamin C encourages the growth of cartilage cells by stimulating synthesis of these cells’ genetic material. The recommended dosage is 3,000-10,000mg daily in divided doses. High doses of vitamin C can lead to diarrhea so gradually start taking it until you see how sensitive you are to it.
Vitamin E supplementation can provide some pain relief. Vitamin E fights inflammation by neutralizing the biochemicals that are produced during inflammation. These biochemicals, which are released by immune cells, contain free radicals that can damage your cells. Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant which protects the cells from the free radicals. In a study by Israeli researchers, people with osteoarthritis who took 600 IU of vitamin E per day for 10 days had significant reduction in pain compared to those not taking vitamin E. The recommended dosage is 400-600 IU/day. You can also supplement with selenium, a mineral that increases the effectiveness of vitamin E in an amount of about 200 micrograms a day.
Vitamin B12 can help build up bones. A few years ago researchers at the University of Southern California School of Medicine in Los Angeles discovered that B12 stimulates cells in the bone that generate new bone. This could be important to people with osteoarthritis because underneath the degenerating cartilage, the bone also deteriorates, causing additional pain and further cartilage erosion. This led researchers at the University of Missouri in Columbia to try giving B12 to people with osteoarthritis in their hands. They found that people who took 20 micrograms of B12 and 6,400 micrograms of folic acid (another B vitamin that works in concert with B12) for two months had fewer tender joints and better hand strength and took less medicine for pain that people not getting this B vitamin combo.
Niacinamide can also help osteoarthritis. Niacinamide is a form of niacin, one of the B-complex vitamins. Niacinamide is often recommended as an alternative to n iacin because it produces fewer side effects. Some nutrition-oriented doctors have been recommending nicinamide for osteoarthritis since the 1940s, when it was found to be helpful in relieving swelling and joint pain and improving muscle strength. Improvement is usually noticeable after the first few weeks and becomes even more pronounced with continued treatment. Very severely damaged arthritis joints respond slowly or don’t respond at all. If you decide to try niacinamide for osteoarthritis, make sure you do so under medical supervision. Treatment requires dosages of 500 mg twice a day to 1,000 mg three times a day. Any dosage of 1,500 mg/day or more has the potential to cause liver problems. Blood tests for liver enzymes should be performed after three months of treatment and then annually thereafter to make sure there is no liver damage.
Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate have both been proven to help with osteoarthritis. These supplements give your body the nutrients it needs to build cartilage. You can see the research behind these supplements in a previous post I wrote on Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. A few warnings about these supplements: glucosamine sulfate can raise blood sugar in diabetics. Chondroitin sulfate can cause bleeding in those taking blood thinners. Also glucosamine sulfate should not be taken if you are allergic to shellfish because it is derived from the shells of shellfish.